The budget stipulates that Singapore will impose a carbon tax entering into force in 2019. All facilities producing 25,000 tonnes or more of greenhouse gas emissions in a year will have to pay a carbon tax. The carbon tax will initially be $5 per tonne of greenhouse gas emissions from 2019 to 2023. The Government will review the carbon tax rate by 2023, with plans to increase it to between $10 and $15 per tonne of emissions by 2030.
This Act mandates energy efficiency requirements and energy management practices, to promote energy conservation, improve energy efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of energy use.
Under the Act, large energy users in the industry and transport sectors that consume at least the equivalent of 54 tera-joules of energy per calendar year in at least two out of the three preceding calendar years must appoint at least one energy manager to manage energy use. These companies or transport facility operators are also required to monitor and report energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, and submit energy efficiency improvement plans on an annual basis to the relevant agencies.
The Act also consolidates the legislation for mandatory energy labelling and minimum energy performance standards for household appliances, as well as fuel economy labelling of motor vehicles, previously stipulated under the Environmental Protection and Management Act (Cap 94A).
The Act is jointly administered by the Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources and Ministry of Transport. The Minister for the Environment and Water Resources oversees the measures for the industry and households sectors while the Minister for Transport oversees the measures for the transport sector.
This Act prescribes standards of safety, accessibility, environmental sustainability and buildability. The legislation provides a blueprint to regulate the design of building works and the periodic structural inspection of existing structures.
On 15 April 2008, the Act was enhanced to incorporate the Building Control (Environmental Sustainability) Regulations. This regulation requires developers and owners of new building projects as well as existing building projects involving major retrofitting (with Gross Floor Areas of 2000m2 or more) to meet the compliance standard which was modelled after the basic Green Mark certified standard. Under this requirement, the professionals appointed by the developers or owners would have to ensure that the building design meet at least 28% energy efficiency improvement from 2005 codes along with other salient aspects of environmental sustainability such as water efficiency, indoor environmental quality, environmental management and the use of green building technologies.
On 01 December 2012,the Building Control (Environmental Sustainability Measures for Existing Buildings) Regulations was introduced to the Building Control Act (Act), requiring building owners to:
- Comply with the minimum environmental sustainability standard (Green Mark Standard) for existing buildings, as and when they retrofit their cooling system (effective from 2 Jan 2014);
- Submit periodic energy efficiency audits of building cooling systems; and
- Submit information in respect of energy consumption and other related information as required by the Commissioner of Building Control (effective from 1 July 2013).
This Act establishes the Energy Market Authority (EMA) of Singapore. It states that the function and duty of the EMA is to create a market framework in respect of the supply of electricity or gas which promotes and maintains fair and efficient market conduct and effective competition or, in the absence of a competitive market, which prevents the misuse of monopoly or market power.
As well as promoting the development of the gas and electricity industries, and advising the government on national needs, policies and strategies relating to energy utilities, a key role of the EMA is to promote the efficient use of energy in Singapore (with specific provisions for gas and electricity detailed in the Gas Act and the Electricity Act respectively). The remainder of the Act specifies technical provisions, such as the transfer of property, assets, liabilities and employees, as well as the constitution of the EMA.
Along with the Gas Act, Electricity Act and the Public Utilities Act, the Energy Market Authority of Singapore Act was passed to restructure and liberalise the energy sector.
This Act creates a competitive market framework for the gas industry, and makes provision for the safety, technical and economic regulation of the transportation and retail of gas. It specifies that the EMA is to promote the efficient use of gas by consumers and to ensure that gas licensees whose prices are controlled by the EMA are able to provide an efficient, financially viable service.
Along with the Electricity Act, Public Utilities Act and the Energy Market Authority of Singapore Act, the Gas Act was passed to restructure and liberalise the energy sector. The Gas Act makes provisions to open up gas importation and distribution to full competition via licensing.
This Act creates a competitive market framework for the electricity industry, and makes provision for the safety, technical and economic regulation of the generation, transmission, supply and use of electricity. It specifies that the EMA is to promote the efficient use of electricity by consumers and to promote the economic efficiency and maintenance of such efficiency in the electricity industry. It also specifies that the EMA is to ensure that electricity licensees whose prices are controlled by the EMA are able to provide an efficient, financially viable service.
Along with the Gas Act, Public Utilities Act and the Energy Market Authority of Singapore Act, the Electricity Act was passed to restructure and liberalise the energy sector. The Electricity Act makes provisions to open up the generation and distribution of electricity to full competition.
The Act provides for the establishment of the National Environment Agency, its tasks, functions and responsibilities in preventing, abating and controlling air, water, land and food pollution. Provisions are made for the prevention and control of pollution of the air, water and land both by domestic and industrial pollutants: smoke, cinders, solid particles, liquids, sewage, gases, fumes, gases, vapours and radioactive substances. It is required to promote energy efficiency, the use of clean energy, the use of clean technologies, the use of efficient pollution control technologies and waste recycling.
The powers of the National Environment Agency also include the ability to request information from and collaborate or co-operate with any person, whether in Singapore or elsewhere, on matters related to or connected with weather and climate, and it may also collect, compile and analyse statistical information related to or connected with climate and weather (among other subject matters).