Member States shall ensure that contracting authorities, contracting entities and operators under a public service contract, take into account the operational lifetime energy and environmental impacts when purchasing road transportation vehicles.
This Directive was amended by Directive 2019/1161
The Commission Decision 2009/300/EC establishes the revised ecological criteria for the award of the Community Eco-label to televisions. In line with Regulation (EC) No 66/2010
on Eco-Labelling, one of the key criterion to gain the label is energy efficiency. The document specifies that the manufacturer shall display the information that energy efficiency cuts energy consumption and thus saves money by reducing electricity bills. Commission Decision 2018/59 tightens the maximum energy consumption and specifications of the Energy Efficiency Index set out in Decision 2009/300/EC.
A revision and strengthening of the Emissions Trading System (EU ETS).
A single EU-wide cap on emission allowances will apply from 2013 and will be cut annually, reducing the number of allowances for businesses to 21% below the 2005 level in 2020. The free allocation of allowances will be progressively replaced by auctioning. From 2013 the power sector will have to buy all emissions permits under an EU-wide auction (with some time-limited exceptions for newer member countries). From 2013 (phase III of EU ETS, 2013-2020), the revised ETS will be extended to new sectors (for example, aviation) or to new GHGs (besides carbon dioxide, the EU ETS also covers nitrous oxides and perfluorocarbons). Smaller emitters (<25,000 tCO2/year) may opt out of the EU ETS.
By end-2009 the Commission determined the sectors or sub-sectors deemed to be exposed to a significant risk of carbon leakage. Production from sectors at significant risk of carbon leakage will receive relatively more free allowances than other sectors. The revised Directive also recognises that the competitive situation, and thus the risk of carbon leakage, may change unless there is an international climate change agreement.
The Effort Sharing legislation establishes binding annual greenhouse gas emission targets for Member States for the periods 2013-2020 and 2021-2030. These targets concern emissions from most sectors not included in the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), such as transport, buildings, agriculture and waste.
The Effort Sharing legislation forms part of a set of policies and measures on climate change and energy that will help move Europe towards a low-carbon economy and increase its energy security.
The national targets will collectively deliver a reduction of around 10% in total EU emissions from the sectors covered by 2020 and of 30% by 2030, compared with 2005 levels.
Together with a 21% cut in emissions covered by the EU ETS by 2020 and 43% by 2030, this will allow the EU to achieve its climate targets for 2020 and 2030.
This Directive establishes a Community GHG emissions trading scheme from 2005, to enable the Community and the Member States to meet their Kyoto Protocol commitments. Directive 2004/101/EC reinforces the link between the EU's emission allowance trading scheme and the Kyoto Protocol by making the latter's 'project-based' mechanisms (Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism) compatible with the scheme. From 2005, all installations in the energy sector, iron and steel production and processing, the mineral industry, and the wood pulp, paper and board industry, and emitting the specific GHG associated with that activity, must possess a permit issued by the appropriate authorities. Each Member State must draw up a national plan indicating the allowances it intends to allocate for the relevant period and how it proposes to allocate them to each installation. The Directive also provides for flights that arrive or depart from a Member State's territory to be subject to the EU ETS (from 2012), measure that so far applies to intra-EU flights. Any operator failing to surrender the quantity of allowances commensurate with the emissions from his/her installation during the previous year will have to pay EUR100 (USD 125) per tCO2e and buy allowances for the excess emissions. The 2003 Directive was amended by Directive 2004/101/EC, Directive 2008/101/EC, Regulation (EC) No 219/2009, Directive 2009/29/EC
, Decision No 1359/2013/EU, Commission Regulation (EU) No 389/2013
, Regulation (EU) No 421/2014 and Regulation (EC) 2017/2392
. Directive 2009/29/EC amends Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the Community. Directive (EU) 2018/410 was adopted in March 2018 to enhance cost-effective emission reductions and low-carbon investments.
Directive 2010/30/EU sets up a framework to harmonise national measures on end-user information. Member States must ensure that information relating to energy consumption is brought to the attention of end-users. The bill also adopts rules for the placing on the market/ putting into service of an 'energy-using product (EuP), adopting also rules for importing these goods.
Regulation 2017/1369 of 4 July 2017 repeals Directive 2010/30/EU and set a framework for energy labelling.
The Commission Decision 2017/175 establishes the EU Ecolabel criteria for tourist accommodations. It builds on Regulation no 66/2010
instituting the Ecolabel to define the rules under which a tourist accommodation can acquire the EU Ecolabel certification. The Decision aims at promoting the use of renewable energy sources, saving energy and water, reducing waste and improving the local environment.
A number of efforts with regards to renewable energy supply and demand enable an accommodation to gain points in order to gain the certification. For example, criterion 40 related to heating energy mentions that 1) at least 70 % of the total energy used to heat or cool the rooms (1,5 points) and/or to heat sanitary water (1 point) shall come from renewable energy sources as defined in Article 2(a) of Directive 2009/28/EC, and 2) 100 % of the total energy used to heat or cool the rooms (2 points) and/or to heat sanitary water (1,5 points) shall come from renewable energy sources as defined in Article 2(a) of Directive 2009/28/EC. Criterions 12, 38, 39 and 41 also involve renewable energy.
The directives provide the legislative basis for reducing the GHG intensity of fuels used in vehicles for transportation by 10% by 2020. They apply to all fuels used in road transportation, including petrol, diesel and biofuels, and to gasoil that is used in non-road mobile machinery.
The 10% target comprises 6% reduction of GHG intensity of fuels by 2020, 2% reduction of GHG intensity depending on the development of new technologies and 2% reduction from purchasing Clean Development Mechanism credits. The Directive requires calculation of fuel GHG intensity on a life-cycle basis, calculated from a 2010 baseline.
To limit the undesired impacts of biofuel production, it establishes criteria to enable biofuels to be counted towards GHG emission reduction targets. Biofuel GHG emissions must be >35% lower than the fossil fuel they are replacing, increasing to >50% by 2017 and >60% from 2018. Raw materials for biofuels may not be taken from land with high carbon stocks (e.g. peat lands) or high biodiversity. However, the implementing measures of the Fuel Quality Directive have not been adopted and it has thus only limited impact.
The Commission Implementing Decision 2017/1462
of 10 August 2017 deals with the â€˜REDcert' voluntary scheme for demonstrating compliance with the sustainability criteria under Directives 98/70/EC and 2009/28/EC. Council Directive 2015/652
of 20 April 2015 lays down calculation methods and reporting requirements pursuant to Directive 98/70/EC.
This Directive establishes a common framework of measures for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in the EU in order to minimise dependence on oil and to mitigate the environmental impact of transport. This Directive sets out minimum requirements for the building-up of alternative fuels infrastructure, including recharging points for electric vehicles and refuelling points for natural gas (LNG and CNG) and hydrogen, to be implemented by means of Member States' national policy frameworks, as well as common technical specifications for such recharging and refuelling points, and user information requirements.
The 'Clean Sky' Joint Technology Initiative (JTI) is aiming to unite public and private driving forces (human and financial) in European aviation and to develop the technologies necessary for a clean, innovative and competitive system of air transport, through research. It aims to reduce CO2 emissions by 50% and NOx by 80% by 2020.
The 2007 Regulation was terminated in 2014 and replaced by the Regulation No 558/2014 that establishes the Clean Sky 2 Joint Undertaking.
The new F-Gas Regulation aims to cut by 2030 the EU's F-gas emissions by two-thirds compared with 2014 levels. These are certain fluorinated gases (HFCs, PFCs and sulphur hexafluorides), and cuts will come in particular through improving containment and monitoring of these gases, increasing recovery, and restricting their marketing and use.
From 2008, anyone producing, importing or exporting more than 100 tonnes of CO2-e of any of fluorinated GHGs must communicate the imported or exported amount produced, the applications in which they will be used including the expected emissions, and the amounts recycled, reclaimed or destroyed. A system of quotas is to be put in place starting on 1 January 2015, with values recalculated every three years from 2017.
This legislation sets emission performance standards for new passenger cars. Car manufacturers must ensure by 2015 that average annual CO2 emissions do not exceed 130g CO2/km. A target of 95g/km is specified for the year 2020.
In 2012, 65% of each manufacturer's newly registered cars must comply on average with the limit value curve set by the legislation. This will rise to 75% in 2013, 80% in 2014, and 100% from 2015 onwards.
Commission to report on implementation by 2010 and to publish performance indicators for each manufacturer, highlighting success or failure to comply (by 31 October each year, beginning in 2011). Until 2018 manufacturers have to pay an excess emissions premium for each car registered if average CO2 emissions of a manufacturer's fleet exceed its limit value in any year from 2012.
Sets emission performance standards for new light commercial vehicles, including a limit of 175g CO2/km for average CO2 emissions from manufacturers' fleet of small vans by 2017. Specific targets for individual vehicles vary according to weight. A 2020 target of 147g CO2/km has been adopted.
In 2014, 70% of each manufacturer's newly registered units must comply on average with the limit value curve set by the legislation, rising to 75% in 2015, 80% in 2016 and 100% from 2017.
A 'super-credit' scheme will help manufacturers comply: a multiplier figure decreasing from 3.5 in 2014 to 1.7 in 2017 will be applied to every vehicle with specific emissions of CO2 of less than 50g CO2/km, up to 25,000 units per manufacturer. To incentivise investment in new technologies, from 2014 producers will have to pay an increasing penalty if their fleet fails to meet their target.
Vehicles running on E85 (petrol with 85% bioethanol) will benefit from a 5% lower emission target by 31 December 2015 in recognition of the greater technological and emission reduction capability when at least 30% of the filling stations provide EU-compliant sustainable biofuels. CO2 savings achieved through the use of innovative technologies shall be taken into consideration up to 7g CO2/km.
By 2014 the Commission shall, if appropriate, launch a proposal to include in the Regulation vehicles in category N2 and M2 with a reference mass not exceeding 2,160 kg and vehicles to which type-approval is extended, with a view to achieving the longer-term target from 2020.
By 2014 the Commission shall publish a report on the availability of data on footprint and payload and their use as utility parameters for determining specific emissions targets and, if appropriate, submit a proposal to the European Parliament and to the Council.
The CAP has been reformed by strengthening its greening aspects. Climate mitigation and adaptation are explicitly among the key objectives of the CAP, which accounts for about 30% of the overall EU budget/ MFF 2014-2020. The greening measures in the CAP 2014-2020 particularly increase the carbon sink by encouraging more grassland, the protection of forest cover and address the challenges of soil quality. It makes direct payments to farmers conditional upon compliance with greening measures, which account for 30% of the overall direct payments (pillar I). These measures include crop diversification, conserving 5% (and later 7%) of areas of ecological interest and maintaining permanent grassland. 30% of the budget within the rural development programmes (pillar II) is to be dedicated to agri-environmental measures, projects related to environmentally friendly investment or innovation measures as well as to support for organic farming. It further improves agri-environmental measures via higher environmental protection targets.
Regulation No 1293/201 establishes a Programme for the Environment and Climate Action (LIFE) and repeals Regulation (EC) No 614/2007
. The LIFE Programme covers the period from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2020. A sub-programme for Climate Action is also set up. LIFE's objectives are:
- to contribute to the shift towards a resource-efficient, low- carbon and climate- resilient economy, to the protection and improvement of the quality of the environment and to halting and reversing biodiversity loss, including the support of the Natura 2000 network and tackling the degraÂ dation of ecosystems;
- to improve the development, implementation and enforcement of Union environmental and climate policy and legislation, and to act as a catalyst for, and promote, the integration and mainstreaming of environmental and climate objectives into other Union policies and public and private sector practice, including by increasing the public and private sector's capacity;
- to support better environmental and climate governance at all levels, including better involvement of civil society, NGOs and local actors;
- to support the implementation of the 7th Environment Action Programme.The Programme's budget for the period from 2014 to 2020 is set at EUR 3 456 655 000.
The Decision no 1386/2013/EU sets up the General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020 â€˜Living well, within the limits of our planet'. It adopts the '7th Environment Action programme' or â€˜7th EAP'. The priority objectives of the 7th EAP are: (a) to protect, conserve and enhance the Union's natural capital; (b) to turn the Union into a resource-efficient, green and competitive low-carbon economy; (c) to safeguard the Union's citizens from environment-related pressures and risks to health and well-being; (d) to maximise the benefits of Union environment legislation by improving implementation; (e) to improve the knowledge and evidence base for Union environment policy; (f) to secure investment for environment and climate policy and address environmental externalities; (g) to improve environmental integration and policy coherence; (h) to enhance the sustainability of the Union's cities; (i) to increase the Union's effectiveness in addressing interÂ national environmental and climate-related challenges.
Harmonisation of accounting rules for emissions from land use, land use change and forestry. The objective is to include agriculture and forestry into European climate mitigation efforts.
This decision is a direct response to the UNFCCC decision in 2011 to revise the accounting rules for GHG emissions and removals from forests and soils. It meets international standards by maintaining the voluntary nature of accounting for draining and rewetting of wetlands, but goes beyond the UNFCCC decision by making accounting for cropland and grassland management mandatory for member states.
The new rules are intended to better recognise the efforts of farmers and forest owners to maintain carbon stored in soils and forests and to facilitate a more climate-friendly architecture (funds are available through the Common Agricultural Policy's Rural Development pillar), protecting water resources and biodiversity.
It also contains reporting requirements for Member States on their initiatives to decrease emissions from forestry and agriculture-related activities as well as increase the carbon sink.
The directive does not set targets for reducing GHG in agriculture and forestry as the accounting rules set out by this directive first need to prove to be sufficiently robust.
Decision 280/2004/EC concerning a mechanism for monitoring Community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol was repealed and replaced by Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2013.
The EU has established a mechanism for monitoring and reporting GHG emissions to evaluate the progress made in reducing emissions. The Member States and the Community must devise, publish and implement national programmes and a Community programme to limit or reduce anthropogenic emissions by sources, and enhance the removal by sinks, of all GHGs not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. The national programmes must include information on: the effect of national policies and measures on emissions and removals, broken down by gas and by sector; national projections for emissions and removal of CO2 and other GHGs for 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020; measures being taken or planned to implement relevant Community policies; and to comply with commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.
The EU mechanism for monitoring and reporting GHG emissions is further framed by Commission Decision 2005/166/EC
and Commission Regulation (EU) No 389/2013
. Commission Decision 2017/1471
, which amends Decision 2013/162/EU, revises Member States' annual emission allocations for the period from 2017 to 2020.
The Directive aims to achieve an EU-wide energy savings of 15% by 2020, which translates into no more than 1,474 Mtoe primary energy or no more than 1,078 Mtoe of final energy by 2020. With the accession of Croatia in 2013, the target was revised to 1,483 Mtoe primary energy or no more than 1,086 Mtoe of final energy. Each Member State must set an indicative national energy efficiency target, based on either primary or final energy consumption, primary or final energy savings or energy intensity.
Member States have to ensure from 1 January 2014 that 3% of the total floor area of heated and/or cooled buildings owned by their central government is renovated each year. They must establish a long-term strategy to mobilise investment in the renovation of the national stock of residential and commercial buildings, both public and private.
Member States must set up an energy efficiency obligation scheme, ensuring that obligated energy distributors and/or retail energy sales companies achieve a cumulative end-use energy savings target by 31 December 2020 at least equivalent 1.5% a year from 2014 to 2020 of the annual energy sales to final customers of all energy distributors or all retail energy sales companies by volume, averaged over the most recent 3-year period prior to 2013. They can use a bundle of flexibility measures as well as equivalent alternative measures to achieve up to 25% of the amount of the energy savings target.
Large enterprises are subject to an energy audit within 3 years of the Directive entering into force and at least every 4 years from the date of the previous energy audit.
Billing of customers based on actual consumption in order to enable final customers to regulate their own energy consumption at least once a year, and billing information to be made available at least quarterly, on request or where the consumers have opted to receive electronic billing or else twice yearly.
By 31 December 2015, Member States shall carry out and notify to the Commission a comprehensive assessment of the potential for the application of high-efficiency co-generation and efficient district heating and cooling.
National Energy Efficiency Action Plans
shall list significant measures and actions towards primary energy saving in all sectors of the economy and Member States must report on the expected savings for 2020 and savings achieved by the time of the reporting. By 30 June 2014, the Commission will assess the progress achieved.
This Directive facilitates the installation and operation of electrical cogeneration plants. In the short term, the Directive should make it possible to consolidate existing cogeneration installations and promote new plants. In the medium to long term, the Directive should to create the necessary framework for high efficiency cogeneration. Member States must evaluate progress by 2007 at the latest and thereafter every four years.
This directive was repealed by Directive 2012/27/EU
of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, alongside the repeal of Directive 2006/32/EC and the amendment of Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU.
Minimum energy performance requirements of new and existing buildings, certification of their energy performance and the regular inspection of boilers and air conditioning systems in buildings in the residential sector and the tertiary sector (including offices and public buildings). In the 2010 recast, the EU executive expects the overhaul to bring its energy consumption down by 5-6%, consequently slashing CO2 emissions by 5% by 2020.
Requires a common methodology for calculating the integrated energy performance of buildings. This includes: minimum standards on the energy performance of new buildings, and existing buildings that are subject to major renovation: systems for the energy certification of new and existing buildings and the prominent display of this certification and other relevant information for public buildings. Certificates must be less than five years old. Regular inspection of boilers and central air conditioning systems in buildings and an assessment of heating installations in which the boilers are more than 15 years old must be conducted.
In the 2018 recast, public buildings will have nearly zero-energy standards and by 2020, all new buildings are to be nearly zero-energy. Eliminating the current 1,000mÂ² threshold would mean that all existing buildings undergoing major renovations would have to meet minimum efficiency levels.
Member States are responsible for drawing up the minimum standards and ensuring that the certification and inspection of buildings is carried out by qualified and independent personnel.
The Directive 2018/844 amends the previous documents. It notably requires Member States to publish strategiesto 2050 on achieving a 'highly energy efficient and decarbonised building stock'. It also requires renovation strategies with 2030, 3040 and 2050 as target years, promotes the use o smart technologies, and requires minimum levels of electric-vehicle charging points in new or renovated buildings.
The development of a resilient and integrated energy market across the EU - the Internal Energy Market - has been supported by the subsequent Energy Packages. The First Energy Package concerned common rules for the internal market in electricity and for the internal market in natural gas. It was updated in 2003 by the Second Energy Package, which enabled new gas and electricity suppliers to enter Member States' markets and enabled consumers to choose their own gas and electricity suppliers.
The Third Energy Package:
â€¢ regulates transmission network ownership by ensuring a clear separation of supply and production activities from network operation through three models of organisation: full â€˜ownership unbundling', independent system operator and independent transmission operator;
â€¢ ensures more effective regulatory oversight from truly independent national energy regulators, strengthening and harmonising the competences and the independence of national regulators so as to allow effective and non-discriminatory access to the transmission networks;
â€¢ reinforces consumer protection and ensures the protection of vulnerable consumers;
â€¢ regulates third party access to gas storage and liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities, and lays down rules concerning transparency and regular reporting about gas reserves;
â€¢ promotes regional solidarity by requiring Member States to co-operate in the event of severe disruptions of gas supply, by co-ordinating national emergency measures and developing gas interconnections.
In 2007 EU leaders endorsed an integrated approach to climate and energy policy that aims to combat climate change and increase energy security while strengthening its competitiveness. In 2008 the European Commission proposed binding legislation to implement the 20-20-20 targets. This 'climate and energy package' became law in 2009. The core of the package comprises four pieces of complementary legislation.
The 20-20-20 targets include:
â€¢ Reduction of EU GHG emissions by at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020
â€¢ 20% of EU energy consumption to come from renewable resources by 2020
â€¢ 20% reduction in primary energy use compared with projected levels, by improving energy efficiency
The EU committed to increase its emissions reduction to 30% by 2020, on condition that other major emitting countries commit to do their fair share under a global climate agreement.
Member States will limit GHG emissions between 2013 and 2020 according to a linear trajectory with binding annual targets. This will ensure a gradual move towards the 2020 targets in sectors where changes take time to implement, such as buildings, infrastructure and transportation. To increase the cost-effectiveness of policies and measures, Member States are allowed to deviate from the linear trajectory to a certain degree.
The Renewable Energy Directive sets the following targets:
â€¢ At least 10% share of renewables in final energy consumption in the transportation sector by 2020
â€¢ The biofuels and bio-liquids should contribute to a reduction of at least 35% of GHG emissions in order to be recognised. From 2017, their share in emissions savings should be increased to 50 %
It further commissions an assessment of the inclusion of emissions and removals related to LULUCF - anticipated to follow up on any international agreement on forestry, deforestation and sustainability criteria.
The Directive 2009/28/EC
of 23 April 2009 in particular promotes the use of energy from renewable sources, amends and subsequently repeals Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC.
The aim of this Regulation is to increase the safety, and the economic and environmental efficiency of road transport by proÂmoting fuel-efficient and safe tyres with low noise levels. It establishes a framework for the provision of harmonised information on tyre parameters through labelling, allowing end-users to make an informed choice when purchasing tyres. The Regulation lists a number of obligations for tyre suppliers regarding different fuel efficiency classes. Article 7 specifies that harmonised testing methods referred to in Annex I must apply. Article 10 states that Member States shall not provide incentives with regard to tyres below Class C. However, Taxation and fiscal measures do not constitute incentives for the purÂ pose of this Regulation.
The directive aims to establish a coherent framework for eco-design requirements applied to energy-using products. Through implementing measures and voluntary agreements, mandatory minimum requirements are set for products taking account of life-cycle costs. The extension expanded the directive's scope to encompass all energy related products.
Member States must adopt national legislation to implement the directive, create authorities for market surveillance and adopt penalties for infringements. Member states are prohibited from adopting measures that compromise the placing on the market/ putting into service any product that has complied with EC requirements on eco-design.
The Directive establishes a legal framework for the environmentally safe geological storage of CO2. It covers all CO2 storage in geological formations in the EU, and lays down requirements covering the entire lifetime of a storage site. It implements a permit regime for exploration and storage, and selection criteria for storage sites.
The Directive defines the relationship between carbon, capture and storage (CCS) and the EU ETS in terms of finance and also rules that CO2 captured and stored will be considered as 'not emitted'. There are monitoring and reporting obligations, inspections, measures in case of irregularities and/or leakage and provision of financial security.
Site selection is the crucial stage for ensuring the integrity of a project and the Directive lays down extensive requirements. A site can only be selected for use if a prior analysis shows that, under the proposed conditions of use, there is no significant risk of leakage or damage to human health or the environment. The operation of the site must be closely monitored and corrective measures taken in the case that leakage does occur. In addition, the Directive contains provisions on closure and post-closure obligations, and sets out criteria for the transfer of responsibility from the operator to the Member State.
It aims to reduce GHG emissions from sectors not included in the EU Emission Trading System (EU ETS) such as transportation, buildings, agriculture and waste.
Each Member State agreed to a binding national emissions limitation target for 2020 that reflects its relative wealth. The targets range from a reduction of 20% by the richest Member States, to an increase of 20% by the poorest, compared to 2005 levels. These national targets will cut EU emissions from non-ETS sectors by 10% by 2020 compared with 2005 levels. Member States may transfer unused emission allocations to the following year or to other Member States and purchase a proportion of credits from third countries.
The ETS and effort-sharing legislation are together meant to achieve the 20% emissions reductions by 2020 from 1990 levels set in the 2020 climate and energy package.
Commission Decision 2013/162/EU
of 26 March 2013 determines Member States' annual emission allocations for the period from 2013 to 2020 pursuant to Decision No 406/2009/EC, and Commission Implementing Decision 2013/634/EU
of 31 October 2013 adjusts the Member States' annual emission allocations for the same period.
The Directive 1999/94/EC on the consumer information of fuel economy and CO2 emissions of new cars obliges dealers of new passenger cars to provide potential buyers with useful information on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. This consumer information system is to be set up using the following four methods: attaching a fuel consumption and CO2 emissions label to the vehicle; producing a fuel consumption and CO2 emissions guide; displaying posters in car showrooms; and including fuel consumption and CO2 emissions data in promotional material.
The Directive was amended by Directive 2003/73/EC, Regulation (EC) No. 1882/2003 and Regulation (EC) No 1137/2008.
The present regulation establishes a Community energy-efficiency labelling programme for office equipment. It is a recast of Regulation (EC) No 2422/2001. In order to promote the energy efficiency criteria, the Commission and the other Community institutions shall specify energy-efficiency requirements not less demanding than the Common Specifications for public supply contracts having a value equal to or greater than the thresholds laid down in Article 7 of that Directive.
Introduces generalised arrangements for the taxation of energy products and electricity. The Community system of minimum rates (previously confined to mineral oils) is extended to coal, natural gas and electricity. Energy products and electricity are only taxed when used as motor or heating fuel.
The framework authorises Member States to adopt tax refund mechanisms to businesses with significant energy efficiency investment. Non-energy intensive activities can receive up to 50% tax relief, while energy-intensive businesses are eligible for 100% tax relief.
The directive includes provisions on taxation of commercial diesel, to address trade distortion amongst EU member states. Member states are also allowed to apply higher taxes to non-business use of energy products than to business use. International air transportation is exempt.