Overview and context
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Nationally Determined Contribution (UNFCCC website)
The Democratic Islamic Federal Republic of Pakistan has a bicameral parliament. This is composed of the Senate or Upper House and the National Assembly or Lower House. The Senate has 104 seats and members are indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories’ representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms. One half of the representatives are elected every three years. The last Senate election was held in March 2012 and the next one is expected to take place in 2015. The National Assembly has 342 seats of which 272 members are elected for five-year terms by popular vote. There are 60 seats reserved for women and 10 seats for non-Muslims. The last election for the National Assembly was held in May 2013 and the next one is expected to be held in 2018.
The President is elected by both Houses of Parliament and the Provincial Assemblies. The Prime Minister, who heads the Cabinet, belongs to the National Assembly. Members of the Cabinet are appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. Cabinet members are taken from the National Assembly (75%) and the Senate (25%).
A bill relating to the Federal Legislative List can be originated in either House. If the House passes a Bill through majority vote, it is transmitted to the other House. If the other House passes it without amendment, it is then presented to the President for assent.
However, if the bill is not passed within 90 days or is rejected by the non-originating House, it is considered in a joint sitting summoned by the President on the request of the House in which the bill was originated. If the bill is passed in the joint sitting by the majority of the members of the two Houses, it is presented to the President for assent. If the bill is presented to the President, a decision to assent should be made within 10 days. However if after 10 days no statement of assent has been made, it is deemed to have been given.
Under the Constitution, the Parliament may also legislate directly for the provinces where there is a request made by those provinces. If the Federal Government proclaims a State of Emergency in any province, the power to legislate over that province is also then vested in the Parliament. However, bills passed by the Parliament during a State of Emergency remain in force only for six months after the State of Emergency is lifted. Actions taken during a State of Emergency remain valid once the crisis has passed.