National Climate Change Strategy
The strategy identifies accelerated coastal erosion, higher incidences of intense rain or prolonged drought, biodiversity impacts, and disruption to food and other supplies as potential climate change impacts facing Singapore. It reiterates the country's commitment to a multilateral approach to dealing with climate change, and argues that a global approach will be more conducive towards Singapore's long-term growth and development. It highlights Singapore's position on a global climate agreement as one that supports the UN model of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.
The strategy outlines three key principles that guide Singapore's response to climate change:
- Long-term and integrated planning;
- Pragmatically and economically sound measures; and
- Developing innovative solutions for Singapore and global markets.
It also identifies four main approaches that Singapore will follow in addressing climate change:
- Reducing carbon emissions in all sectors;
- Being ready to adapt to the effects of climate change;
- Harnessing green growth opportunities; and
- Forging partnerships (e.g. with international and regional bodies).
The document contains chapters on the importance of climate change and Singapore's national circumstances and constraints, as well as detailed chapters on both mitigation and adaptation plans and policies.In terms of mitigation, energy efficiency is the country's core strategy (given the country's limited access to renewable energy opportunities). Specific identified strategies to reduce emissions across different sectors include:
- Power generation: switching fuel mix away from fuel oil to natural gas;
- Water: incinerate sludge rather than dispose in landfills;
- Households: extend minimum energy performance standards to lighting and other appliances;
- Buildings: require Green Mark certification for all new buildings;
- Transport: implement carbon emissions-based vehicle scheme to encourage purchase of low carbon emission cars; and
- Industry: develop and support energy efficiency financing pilot schemes.
The strategy identifies coastline protection, addressing flood risks, and managing water resources as the three key adaptation priorities of Singapore, and also focuses heavily on green growth as a development model. Finally, it outlines the various local and international partnerships (e.g. with other countries/cities) that Singapore is engaged in.
Tenfold increase in desalination capacity to meet 30% long term water needs by 2060
7-11% cut in emissions by 2020 compared with a business as usual scenario
35% energy intensity improvement by 2030 against a 2005 baseline
70% recycling by 2030
70% public transportation by 2020