Argentina (officially The Argentine Republic) is a federal republic with a bicameral congress. The National Congress is composed of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Each of the 23 provinces (and the autonomous federal capital, Buenos Aires) elects three senators (two from the majority party and one from the first minority) for a total of 72 senators. The 257 representatives of the Chamber of Deputies are elected by congressional districts based on proportional representation. The last legislative elections were held in October 2015 and the next is expected for 2019.
Legislative proposals are called law projects and are generally introduced in the Chamber of Deputies before debate and vote in the Senate. To become law, all bills must be passed by both congressional bodies and signed by the President, who acts as both head of state and head of government.
A law project is first drafted, proposed and debated in legislative committees in the Chamber of Deputies. Often included in the committee debate is expert testimony. Once the proposal has passed the relevant legislative committee, it is officially presented and debated by all deputies, and amendments may be considered. Once passed by both chambers of congress, the President promulgates, vetoes or partially vetoes the legislation within 10 working days. A presidential veto can be overridden with a two thirds majority in both chambers of congress.
Argentina is a federal republic made up of 23 provinces and an autonomous national capital city. Each province elects its own governor and congress and is granted significant authority over the running of its territory. While federal law usurps provincial law, many of the laws passed by National Congress and enacted by the President are written to coexist with provincial law. Some provinces have passed legislation directly or indirectly related to climate change. Article 41 of the Argentine National Constitution declares the importance of the natural environment and its protection from contamination a national priority. It considers “enjoyment” of the natural environment an individual and cultural right. Constitutionally, each province has the gubernatorial authority to legislate and control its natural resources; however, the national government is granted authority to establish norms and standards for the protection of the environment.