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Bolivia

Political Groups
G77
Global Climate Risk Index
45.33
Targets
World Bank Income Group
Lower middle income
Share of Global Emissions
0.32%

Documents

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·2022·UNFCCC

Contribución Nacionalmente Determinada del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia 2021-2030, Nationally Determined Contribution from Bolivia in 2022

·2021·Policy

This document sets the government's development vision over the period 2021-2025. Under its 8th goal, the plan aims to: 8.1. Strengthen the comprehensive and sustainable management of forests as a strategic resource, promoting the protection of areas with a forestry vocation.8.2.Promote mitigation, adaptation and monitoring actions for climate change, with effective r...

·2020·UNFCCC

Bolivia. National Communication (NC). NC 3., National Communication from Bolivia in 2020

  • Not ApplicableEconomy-wide: Economy Wide · Target year: 0
  • 6 million ha reforestation by 2030LULUCF: Reforestation · Target year: 2030
  • 54 million ha afforestation by 2030LULUCF: Afforestation · Target year: 2030
  • 54 million ha net forest coverage in 2030LULUCF: LULUCF/Forestry: General · Target year: 2030
  • Zero illegal deforestation by 2020LULUCF: Conservation · Target year: 2020

Legislative Process

The Plurinational State of Bolivia adopted a new constitution by popular referendum in 2009 that prioritises popular democratic participation and affirms social, economic and political plurality. The government is divided into four branches: executive, legislative, judicial and electoral. The executive branch is composed of the President (head of state), Vice-President and the Cabinet of Ministers. The legislative branch is bicameral and consists of the Senate – in which 36 members sit, four representatives from each of the nine regional authorities (called departments) – and the House of Deputies – with 130 members, half of whom are elected by popular direct vote and the other half listed on the presidential ticket. Elections were held in December 2020.

Any congressional representative, the Vice-President, the President, the Supreme Court, or any citizen of the Republic may initiate proposed legislation, called law projects. Once a law project is passed in one house, it is debated and considered in the other. Both houses must pass the bill by a simple majority, and modifications must be resolved between the two houses by a conference committee before the President can sign it into law. Should the President oppose some provision of the legislation, he/she may return the bill with a written statement to the house of origin where the objections will be considered and passed with modifications (again in both houses). Alternatively Congress may override presidential objections or veto by a two-thirds majority vote in both houses.

Bolivia’s Constitution has supremacy over other laws in the country. Bolivia’s judicial power is comprised of a Supreme Court of Justice and other lower courts. Article 179 sets that “[…] Ordinary jurisdiction is exercised by the Supreme Court of Justice, the departmental courts of justice, the sentencing courts and the judges; the agro-environmental jurisdiction is exercised by the Agro-Environmental Court and judges; and the rural native indigenous jurisdiction is exercised by their own authorities.” For constitutional judicial enforcement, referred to therein as “constitutional justice”, the Constitution sets a Pluri-National Constitutional Court (Tribunal Constitucional Plurinacional) (art. 179). Article 196 (I) further establishes that the Pluri-National Constitutional Court is responsible of assuring the supremacy of the Constitution, exercising constitutional control, and safeguarding respect for and enforcement of constitutional rights and guarantees.