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Federative (26 states, 1 federal district)
Political Groups
G77, G20
World Bank Income Group
Upper middle income
Global Climate Risk Index

The annually published Global Climate Risk Index analyses to what extent countries have been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (storms, floods, heat waves etc.).

Published by German Watch https://www.germanwatch.org/en/cri
Share of Global Emissions
Laws, Acts, Constitutions (legislative branch)
Policies, strategies, decrees, action plans (from executive branch)
Coming soon
Court cases and tribunal proceedings
Climate targets in National Law & Policy

Latest Documents

, 2023

This decree amends Decree No. 6,527, of August 1, 2008, to provide for the governance of the Amazon Fund. It revokes changes made by the previous administration, gives the Ministry of the Environment the power to stipulate resources for fundraising and restores the Technical Committee of the Fund and the Guiding Committee.

, 2023

This decree establishes the Permanent Interministerial Commission for the Prevention and Control of Deforestation, reestablishes the Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Deforestation in the Legal Amazon - PPCDAm and deals with the Action Plans for the Prevention and Control of Deforestation in the Cerrado, in the Atlantic Forest, in the Caatinga, Pampa and Pantan...

, 2022

This document amends decree 6.514 to increase a range of environmental fines. This notably concerns penalties for activities related to illegal deforestation.

, 2022

This Decree establishes the procedures for the elaboration of the Sectorial Plans for Mitigation of Climate Changes (Title II) referred to in  art. 11 of Law No. 12,187/2009, and institutes the National System for the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (SINARE). Sectoral mitigation plans will have to be prepared by the Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry...

, 2022

This Law establishes an economic subsidy for public electricity distribution service concessionaires with their own markets of less than 350 GWh per year and creates the Just Energy Transition Program (TEJ). It extends the authorisation of the Jorge Lacerda Thermoelectric Complex (CTJL) for 15 years starting in 2025.The TEJ aims to prepare the coal region of the State of S...

  • Reduce between 36.1% and 38.9% of its projected emissions by 2020 against a 2010 baselineEconomy-wide: Economy Wide | Target year: 2020Source: Law 12.187/2009, establishing the National Policy on Climate Change (NPCC), regulated by Decree 7.390/2010
  • Implementation of the National Policy for Energy Efficiency that will result in a gradual energy saving up to 106 TWh/year to be reached in 2030, avoiding emissions of around 30 million tons of CO2 in that year by 2030 against a 2007 baselineEnergy: Energy Efficiency | Target year: 2030Source: National Plan on Climate Change
  • Replacement of one million old fridges per year, for ten years, with the collection of three million tCO2eq/year of CFCs (gases that also deplete the ozone layer) by 2017 against a 2007 baselineBuildings: Energy Efficiency | Target year: 2017Source: National Plan on Climate Change
  • Reduction of 40% in the average deforestation rate by 2006-2009 period in relation to the average rate of the ten years reference period used in the Amazon Fund (1996-2005). For each of the next two periods of four years, reach 30% of extra reduction, in relation to the previous period. In the case of the Amazon bioma, achieving this specific objective can avoid emissions of around 4.8 billion tons of carbon dioxide between 2006 and 2017, considering a biomass carbon stock of 100 tC/ha. This value will be revaluated after the completion of the carbon stocks inventory, to be supported by the National Forest Inventory. by 2006-2009 compared with a 1996-2005 scenarioLULUCF: Preservation | Target year: 2009Source: National Plan on Climate Change
  • Ethanol - encourages industry to achieve an average annual consumption increase of 11% by 2017. Produced from crops raised in areas de ned in the Sugarcane Zoning Program, currently being implemented, it should prevent the emission of 508 million tCO2 during the period.Energy: Renewable Energy: Biofuels | Target year: 2017Source: National Plan on Climate Change

Legislative Process

Brazil’s legislature is represented by a bicameral parliament, the National Congress, composed of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate. The Chamber of Deputies has 513 Members of Parliament (MPs), elected for four-year terms. The most recent elections for the Chamber of Deputies took place in 2014, with the next due in 2018. The Senate has 81 Members, elected for eight-year terms. Elections are staggered so that two-thirds of the upper house is up for election at one time and the remaining one-third four years later. Last elections for the Senate took place in 2010 and 2014, and the next elections are due in 2018 and 2022.

The 1988 Constitution outlines how laws may be proposed. The legislative process may be initiated by any member or committee of the Chamber of Deputies or the Senate; the President of the Republic; the Supreme Federal Court; the Superior Courts; the Attorney-General of the Republic; and the citizens.

Each Chamber has its independent legislative process, passing laws that fall under their specific competences. If a bill is proposed by the Senate, it will be send to the Chamber of Deputies to be revised and vice-versa. Traditionally, the Senate acts more as a reviser than as an author. All bills go through thematic committees; some of the bills do not need to go through plenary, that is, the power of the commission is terminative. The Senate has 11 permanent thematic committees, including the Committee on Environment, Consumer Protection and Auditing and Control. In some areas a proposal must undergo the legislative process in both Chambers simultaneously. There is a permanent and mixed (2 houses) Committee on Climate Change.

Legislation is presented at the Parliament in a process that entails three phases. First, the Constitution and Justice Committee assesses the constitutionality of the proposal, secondly, the text is scrutinised by one or more substantively relevant committees, where the merit of the proposed text is assessed. Finally, the legislation is discussed and voted in the plenary sessions of the congress. With the exception of legislation that modify the constitution, the approval of a law proposal requires simple majority of votes.

After the National Congress’s deliberations, the President of the Republic may sanction or veto the proposition. In the first case, the project becomes a law. In the case of a veto, the project is sent back to Congress. The enactment by the President attests the existence of a new law. After the enactment, the next step is publication, which is intended to inform citizens of the existence and contents of a certain normative act. Publication has the additional purpose of determining the date on which the law will come into effect.