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Ecuador First NDC, Nationally Determined Contribution,Adaptation Communication from Ecuador in 2019


The Organic law on Energy Efficiency aims to establish a legal framework and operating regime of the National Energy Efficiency System - SNEE, and promote the efficient, rational and sustainable use of energy in all its forms, in order to increase the country's energy security; by being more efficient, increasing energy productivity, promoting the competitiveness of the na...


The objective of the National Plan for Disaster Response is to guarantee attention to the population affected by dangerous, natural or anthropogenic events, with the establishment of procedures and protocols, generating adequate coordination and inter-institutional coordination. The plan notably focuses on natural disasters as flood and drought. Specific objectives are 1) ...

Legislative Process

Ecuador was the first Latin American country to successfully move from military rule to a multi-party decentralised democracy based on the rule of law, following a referendum in 1978. However the Republic has endured recurrent periods of political instability during the past decade that have eroded the strength of the state, and weakened the public sector. Historically there has been little co-operation between political parties and the political instability is reflected in the fact that few recent leaders have finished their term in office: there were seven Presidents between 1996 and 2007.

These factors contributed to Ecuador’s constitution being rewritten in 2008, the country’s 20th such change. In 2009 the unicameral 137-seat National Assembly was created, which replaced the Legislative Commission. Assembly members were elected in 2021 by popular vote for a four-year term on a party list mostly-proportional representation system. The new constitution also allows the president and vice-president to be elected for four-year terms. The president in turn appoints a 38-member cabinet. These changes appear to have heralded a new period of political stability, with the incumbent President being re-elected in early 2013.

Ecuador’s Constitution is “the supreme law of the land and prevails over any other legal regulatory framework. The standards and acts of public power must be upheld in conformity with the provisions of the Constitution; otherwise, they shall not be legally binding” (Article 424). The body in charge of controlling, constitutionally interpreting and administering justice is the Constitutional Court, which enjoys administrative and financial autonomy. 

In the judiciary, the National Court of Justice is elected by an independent body of professionals, the Judiciary Council. Judges are elected for nine years. Candidates for the Constitutional Court are selected by the president, government officials and the Supreme Court, with the judges finally appointed by the National Assembly for two-year terms.