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Federative (29 states, 7 Union Territories, including a National Capital Territory)
Political Groups
G77, G20
Global Climate Risk Index
World Bank Income Group
Lower middle income
Share of Global Emissions


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India's Long-Term Low-Carbon Development Strategy, Long-Term Low-Emission Development Strategy from India in 2022


India Updated First Nationally Determined Contribution, Nationally Determined Contribution from India in 2022


The objective of the Plan is to create capacity ahead of demand, which in turn would also cater to future growth in demand right up to 2050 and also increase the modal share of Railways to 45% in freight traffic and to continue to sustain it.

  • Reassertion of the long term goal of reaching net-zero by 2070Economy-wide · Target year: 2070
  • Reduce Emissions Intensity of its GDP by 45 percent by 2030, from 2005 levelEconomy-wide · Target year: 2030
  • Additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2e by 2030 with forest and tree coversLULUCF: LULUCF/Forestry: General · Target year: 2030
  • In India's Interim Budget 2019-2020, the Finance Minister flagged ten points from the 'Vision for the Decade', which included having a pollution free India with green Mother Earth and Blue skies, improving water management and having a blue economy.Economy-wide · Target year: 2029Source: Union Budget 2019-2020 and up to 2023
  • The finance minister welcomes a programme for scaling up LED bulbs across households on a widespread level. This will reduce energy usage in India.Energy · Target year: 2029Source: Union Budget 2019-2020 and up to 2023

Legislative Process

The Indian parliament is a bicameral legislature composed of a Lower House (the House of the People), and an Upper House (the Council of States).

The legislature passes laws – also called “acts” – on constitutionally-specified matters, such as central government finances and constitutional amendments. The two houses have the same powers, but the Council of States’ power in the legislative process is subordinate to the House of the People. All legislative proposals have to be brought in the form of Bills before Parliament. A Bill as a draft statute becomes law after it has received the approval of both Houses of Parliament and the assent of the President.

There are 29 States and seven Union territories in the country (In June 2014, Telangana became the 29th state, consisting of the 10 north-western districts of Andhra Pradesh). The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union territories. Each State Government has the freedom to draft its own laws state subjects. Laws passed by the national Parliament and other pre-existing central laws on subjects classified as central subjects are binding on all citizens.