Overview and context
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Nationally Determined Contribution (UNFCCC website)
The Indian parliament is a bicameral legislature composed of a Lower House (the House of the People), and an Upper House (the Council of States).
The legislature passes laws – also called “acts” – on constitutionally-specified matters, such as central government finances and constitutional amendments. The two houses have the same powers, but the Council of States’ power in the legislative process is subordinate to the House of the People. All legislative proposals have to be brought in the form of Bills before Parliament. A Bill as a draft statute becomes law after it has received the approval of both Houses of Parliament and the assent of the President.
There are 29 States and seven Union territories in the country (In June 2014, Telangana became the 29th state, consisting of the 10 north-western districts of Andhra Pradesh). The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union territories. Each State Government has the freedom to draft its own laws state subjects. Laws passed by the national Parliament and other pre-existing central laws on subjects classified as central subjects are binding on all citizens.