Skip to content
Climate Change Laws of the World logo globeClimate Change Laws of the World logo text


Global Climate Risk Index
World Bank Income Group
Upper middle income
Share of Global Emissions


Featured searches

Kazakhstan First NDC (Updated Submission), Nationally Determined Contribution from Kazakhstan in 2023


This action plan includes an ‘ecological thinking’ category which includes activities that aim to reduce contaminants and strengthen environmental control, increase the national forestry area, adopt a new water code aimed at the protection of water resources and create the necessary infrastructure for electric cars. It is listed in Kazakhstan’s 2023 NDC as one of the relev...


This policy provides for the Strategy to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060 and has the following objectives:Define goals and specific targets for the transition to climate neutrality by 2060;Develop national priorities for GHG emissions reduction and increase carbon sequestration;Identify key areas of technological development and specify infrastructure solutions needed to...

Legislative Process

Legislative authority is shared between the executive (consisting of the President, Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers) and the bicameral parliament consisting of the Senate (upper house) and the Mazhilis (lower house).

The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. The president appoints the Prime Minister (who serves as head of government) and the Council of Ministers. Nursultan Nazarbayev has ruled as President since independence in 1991. While in office, he has passed a number of Presidential Decrees expanding executive authority.

The Senate has 47 members, 32 of whom are elected to four-year terms from local assemblies (two from each of the 14 defined regions, and the cities of Astana and Almaty); the President appoints the remaining 15. In the Mazhilis, there are 107 deputies, of whom 98 are elected from parties and 9 are elected by the People’s Assembly. Mazhilis deputies serve for five-year terms. The last election was held in March 2016, the next is expected in 2020.

The executive branch initiates most draft legislation. If both houses of parliament pass a bill that the president vetoes, a two-thirds majority in both houses are necessary to override the veto.