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Political Groups
World Bank Income Group
Lower middle income
Global Climate Risk Index

The annually published Global Climate Risk Index analyses to what extent countries have been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (storms, floods, heat waves etc.).

Published by German Watch https://www.germanwatch.org/en/cri
Share of Global Emissions
Laws, Acts, Constitutions (legislative branch)
Policies, strategies, decrees, action plans (from executive branch)
Coming soon
Court cases and tribunal proceedings
Climate targets in National Law & Policy

Latest Documents

, 2021

This Act, approved on 12 April 2019, sets out plans to increase energy efficiency and reduce consumption within the Philippines. Certain provisionsThe law is to be implemented by the Department of Energy and the legislation provides for various new mandates of the department, as well as imposing responsibilities on other government bodies. An inter-agency committee on Ener...

, 2020

The Minister for Energy declared in an announcement a moratorium on endorsements for greenfield coal power plants.

, 2020

This document sets the Philippines' legislative response to COVID-19 and a recovery plan.The Act notably aims to "accommodate alternative modes of transport, including a network of bicycle lanes in every city". Cycling measures are detailed at page 23 (pop-up bike lanes, supporting sharing schemes).

, 2020

This document was approved by circular 1085/2020 of Philippines' central bank. It defines the bank's vision to integrate sustainability principles in corporate governance and risk management frameworks as well as in strategic objectives of banks. 

, 2019

In 2019 the Department of Environment and Natural Resources established an Enhanced National Greening Program. The primary objectives are the rehabilitation of 1.2 million hectares of denuded forest lands and the preservation of existing forests. The programme gives effect to Executive Orders No. 23 and 26 of 2011, which aim to address climate change, ensure the sustainabl...

Legislative Process

The legal system of the Philippines is a unique combination of civil law and common law, together with Islamic law and indigenous law. The current constitution, enacted in 1987, is the supreme law and defines the Philippines as a “democratic and republican state”, with the President heading the executive branch, the Congress as the legislative branch and the Supreme Court as the highest judicial body.

Congress is bicameral, consisting of the House of Representatives (commonly known as the Lower House, but frequently referred to as the Congress), and the Senate (often referred to as the Upper House). The Senate is composed of 24 senators, who are elected by the entire electorate. Senators serve for six years each, with elections held every three years for half of them. Senators can serve no more than two consecutive terms. The House of Representatives is composed of approximately 250 congressmen, representing either geographical districts (provinces or cities) or different sectors. The latter represent no more than 20% of the House, and are referred to as party-list representatives. All members of the House are elected for three years, and for a maximum of three consecutive terms. Latest electioneer both the House of Representatives and the Senate were held in May 2016, next are expected for 2019.

Proposed laws are called bills and may be introduced by the Senate or by the House of Representatives. A bill goes through a first reading in which the number and title are read, after which it is referred to an appropriate committee, which prepares a committee report. It is then passed to the Rules committee, and returned for a second hearing, and is subject to debate and amendment before proceeding to the final third hearing. After passing in one House, the bill goes through the same process in the other House.

Major legislation is often introduced in both Houses in the form of companion (identical) bills, to speed up the legislative process by encouraging both chambers to consider the measure simultaneously, and to emphasise the urgency or importance of the issue. After it has passed in both Houses and been signed by their respective leaders, it goes for final approval to the President. The President may sign the bill into a law, or veto all or part of it. A presidential veto can be overridden by a Congressional vote of two thirds of all its members.

Another form of legislation, equivalent to a bill, is a Joint Resolution, generally used when dealing with a single item or issue, such as a continuing or emergency appropriations bill. Joint resolutions are also used to propose amendments to the Constitution.