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Federative (10 provinces, 3 territories)
Political Groups
World Bank Income Group
High income
Global Climate Risk Index

The annually published Global Climate Risk Index analyses to what extent countries have been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (storms, floods, heat waves etc.).

Published by German Watch https://www.germanwatch.org/en/cri
Share of Global Emissions
Laws, Acts, Constitutions (legislative branch)
Policies, strategies, decrees, action plans (from executive branch)
Coming soon
Court cases and tribunal proceedings
Climate targets in National Law & Policy

Latest Documents

, 2022

This plan is the first developed under the Canadian Net-Zero Emissions Accountability Act. It develops sectoral projections of emissions reductions to 2030 with a view on achieving net-zero by 2050, details the government's low-carbon strategy and announces $9.1 billion in new federal investments. The government notably states its objective of reducing methane emissions fr...

, 2021

The Canadian Net-Zero Emissions Accountability Act, which received royal assent on 29 June 2021, sets out Canada's federal emissions reduction targets in law and creates new mechanisms for legislative oversight of action to meet them.Section 6 sets out a long-term objective of achieving net zero emissions by at least 2050. Section 7 adopts Canada's existing NDC target...

, 2021

This is Canada’s strengthened climate plan to "create jobs and support people, communities and the planet". The plan is built on five pillars:1) Making the Places Canadians Live and Gather More Affordable by Cutting Energy Waste2) Making Clean, Affordable Transport and Power Available in Every Community 3) Continuing to Ensure Pollution isn’t Free and Households Get M...

, 2020

This strategy aims at reducing GHG emissions and increase the resilience of Canada's federal government. It builds on the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy. It seeks to transition to net-zero carbon and climate-resilient operations, while also reducing environmental impacts beyond carbon, including on waste, water and biodiversity.The strategy notably sets goals wit...

, 2020

This document, subtitled "Seizing the Opportunities for Hydrogen - A Call to Action", sets the government's vision to increase the production and use of hydrogen in the country. It was developed with a range of non-state stakeholders. It seeks to modernise the country's energy systems through building new hydrogen supply and distribution infrastructure and fostering uptake...

Legislative Process

The Parliament is the federal legislative branch and legislative assemblies are based on the British model. It consists of the Senate (105 members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister) and the House of Commons (308 members elected for a maximum of five years). Representation in both chambers is according to population in the provinces. General elections are held on the third Monday of October of the fourth calendar year after the previous poll. They can also be called by the prime minister if the government loses the confidence of the legislature. The last federal election was held in October 2015 and the next is expected for 2019, unless the Governor General dissolves Parliament earlier.

The law-making process starts with a bill, which can be introduced in the House of Commons (C-bills) or the Senate (S-bills). Public bills may be initiated by a minister (government bills) or private members. Private bills are founded on a petition signed by those interested in promoting it and introduced in either chamber. Bills that seem to be both public and private in nature are called hybrid bills. Bills to appropriate any part of the public revenue, such as tax or impost, shall originate in the House of commons (“money votes”). A bill goes through certain formal stages in each House. The stages include a series of three readings during which parliamentarians debate the bill. Prior to the third and final reading, each House also sends the bill to a committee where members examine the finer points of the legislation. Committee members hear witness testimony on the bill, and then subject it to a clause-by-clause study based on the testimony. Canada retains the Sovereign of the United Kingdom as its head of state. All laws are formally enacted by the Sovereign “by and with the advice and consent” of the Senate and House of Commons. Once both Houses have approved a bill, it is presented for Royal Assent and becomes law (named Act or Regulation).

The Constitution divides the legislative abilities between the federal and provincial governments. Provincial legislatures may pass laws relating to topics explicitly reserved for them by the Constitution.