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Political Groups
G77, G20
Global Climate Risk Index
World Bank Income Group
Lower middle income
Share of Global Emissions


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Submission of the United States on the Elements for the Consideration of Outputs Component of the First Global Stocktake, Submission to the Global Stocktake from United States of America in 2023


Regulation 16/2022, released by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, regulates the procedures for implementing carbon trading in the electricity generation subsector by determining the limits of the terms used in the regulation. Through the implementing of carbon trading, power plants must carry out power generation efficiency measures in accordance with the provision...


Indonesia's Adaptation communication, Adaptation Communication from Indonesia in 2022

Legislative Process

The Indonesian legal system is based on Roman-Dutch law, custom and Islamic law. The legislature is bicameral and comprises the 560 member House of People’s Representatives (DPR) and the 136 member House of Regional Representatives (DPD). The ensemble of DPR and DPD members forms a third representative body known as the People’s Con­sultative Assembly (MPR). The DPR and the President jointly discuss and approve every Bill. Bills may come from the DPR, the President or the DPD. A wide range of legislation is produced from different sources and with different levels of authority, so there is a hierarchy of legislation, as follows: the 1945 Constitution; MPR Resolution; Law; Government Regulation Substituting a Law; Government Regulation; Presidential Decree; Regional Regulation. Also binding are Presidential Instructions, Ministerial Decrees and Circular Letters.

The most recent elections for the DPR and DPD were held in April 2014, with the next expected in 2019. The current President was elected in October 2014 and serves a five-year term.