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Federative (32 federal entities, which are 31 states and its capital Mexico City)
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Upper middle income
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Mexico: Updated NDC 2022, Nationally Determined Contribution from Mexico in 2022


Mexico. Biennial update report (BUR) BUR 3., National Communication,Biennial Update Report from Mexico in 2022


Mexico. National Inventory Report (NIR)., National Inventory Report from Mexico in 2022

  • By 2030, Mexico will reduce its total GHG emissions by 22% and will reduce its Black Carbon emissions by 51% compared with a 2000 baselineEconomy-wide: Economy Wide · Target year: 2030Source: General Law on Climate Change
  • Reducing emissions by 30% by the year 2020 and 50% reduction in emissions by 2050, against a 2000 baselineEconomy-wide: Economy Wide · Target year: 2050Source: General Law on Climate Change
  • 30% cut in GHG emission against baseline by 2020 and 50% cut in GHG emission compared to 2000 in 2050Economy-wide: Economy Wide · Target year: 2050Source: National Climate Change Strategy
  • Updated NDC in 2022: Raised to 35% (unconditional) reduction in GHG by 2030, compared to BAU scenario; 40% (conditional) reduction in GHG by 2030 compared to BAU scenario. 51% (unconditional) reduction in black carbon by 2030 compared to BAU scenario; 70% (conditional) reduction in black carbon by 2030 compared to BAU scenario. 25% (unconditional) reduction in GHG and Short Lived Climate Pollutants emissions for the year 2030 compared to BAU scenario, equivalent to 22% reduction in GHG and 51% reduction in Black Carbon Economy-wide: Economy Wide · Target year: 2030
  • Reduction of GHG emissions by 30% by 2020, and by 50% by 2050 against a 2000 baselineEconomy-wide · Target year: 2050Source: General Law on Climate Change

Legislative Process

The United Mexican States (Mexico) has a bicameral legislature (Congress) made up of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The Lower Chamber is formed by 300 members elected in a system of electoral districts, and 200 members elected through a system of regional lists for a three-year term. The Senate has 128 senators, two of whom are elected and one assigned for each of the 31 states and the Federal District for a six-year term. The last elections for the Senate as well as the Chamber of Deputies occurred on July 1st, 2018.

The Constitution establishes that  the President and members of the Congress can introduce a bill in Congress. In accordance with Art. 71 of the Constitution, citizens also have the ability to introduce bills if they can gather at least 0.13% of the electorate. In practice, most bills are initiated by the executive branch. With a few exceptions, the legislative process requires the discussion and approval of a draft bill by both the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate addresses all matters concerning foreign policy, approves international agree¬ments and confirms presidential appointments. The Chamber of Deputies addresses all matters pertaining to the government’s budget and public expenditures.

If passed in both Chambers, a bill becomes law once it has received presidential approval and been published in the official gazette. If not sanctioned, the bill is sent back to one of the chambers with suggested amendments, re-launching the legislative process for the adoption of that law.