The United Mexican States (Mexico) has a bicameral legislature (Congress) made up of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The Lower Chamber is formed by 300 members elected in a system of electoral districts, and 200 members elected through a system of regional lists for a three-year term. The Senate has 128 senators, two of whom are elected and one assigned for each of the 31 states and the Federal District for a six-year term. The last elections for the Senate as well as the Chamber of Deputies occurred on July 1st, 2018.
The Constitution establishes that the President and members of the Congress can introduce a bill in Congress. In accordance with Art. 71 of the Constitution, citizens also have the ability to introduce bills if they can gather at least 0.13% of the electorate. In practice, most bills are initiated by the executive branch. With a few exceptions, the legislative process requires the discussion and approval of a draft bill by both the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate addresses all matters concerning foreign policy, approves international agree¬ments and confirms presidential appointments. The Chamber of Deputies addresses all matters pertaining to the government’s budget and public expenditures.
If passed in both Chambers, a bill becomes law once it has received presidential approval and been published in the official gazette. If not sanctioned, the bill is sent back to one of the chambers with suggested amendments, re-launching the legislative process for the adoption of that law.