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The 2023 budget law reduces VAT on bicycles in order to ramp up their modal share.


Portugal. National Communication (NC). NC 8. Biennial Reports (BR). BR 5., National Communication,Biennial Report from Portugal in 2022


Portugal. 2022 National Inventory Report (NIR), National Inventory Report from Portugal in 2022

  • Sets target to achieve net-zero by 2050.Economy-wide · Target year: 2050Source: Portugal's National Energy and Climate Plan for 2021-2030
  • Sets target to achieve net-zero by 2050.Economy-wide · Target year: 2050Source: Resolution no 107/2019 of the Council of Ministers approving the Long-Term Strategy for Carbon Neutrality of the Portuguese Economy in 2050
  • Article 18:  1 — The Portuguese State undertakes to achieve climate neutrality by 2050, which translates into a neutral balance between greenhouse gas emissions and the sequestration of these gases by the various sinks. 2 — Without prejudice to the provisions of the previous number, the Government is studying, until 2025, the anticipation of the climate neutrality target, with a view to the commitment to climate neutrality by 2045 at the latest. Article 19: 2 — The following reduction targets are adopted, in relation to 2005 values, of greenhouse gas emissions, not considering the use of soil and forests: (a) by 2030, a reduction of at least 55%; b) By 2040, a reduction of at least 65 to 75%;  c) By 2050, a reduction of at least 90%. 3 — The target for the net CO2 equivalent sink of the land use and forestry sector, of, on average, at least 13 megatons, between 2045 and 2050, is also adopted. Resolution 56/2015 53/2020?Economy-wide: Economy Wide · Target year: 2030Source: Framework climate law no 98/2021
  • reduce its emissions of greenhouse gas emissions to -18% to -23% in 2020 and -30% to -40% in 2030, 2005 figures, contingent on the results of the negotiations.Economy-wide: Economy Wide · Target year: 2030Source: Resolution of the Council of Ministers no 56/2015
  • Reduction of CO2e emissions (without LULUCF) (Mt CO2e) with respect to 2005. Economy-wide: GHG · Target year: 2030Source: Portugal's National Energy and Climate Plan for 2021-2030

Legislative Process

The Portuguese Republic is a democratic and unitary state. Politically and administratively, the structure (mainland and autonomous regions) is based on a tripartite division of its territory into Districts (total of 20), Municipalities (total of 308) and Parishes (total of 3092). The archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are autonomous regions with their own political and administrative statutes.

The Constitution distinguishes four independent and sovereign organs: the President of the Republic, Parliament, the Government and the Courts of Law. Parliament is the representative assembly of all Portuguese citizens. It is composed of a minimum of 180 and a maximum of 230 Members. Members are elected by electoral districts, which may be either multi-member or single member electoral districts to ensure proportional representation. The Government is responsible for setting policy. It is also the superior organ of the public administration and it is formed by the Prime Minister, the Ministers and Secretaries and Secretaries of State. The Government has political, legislative and administrative competences.

The Government and the Assembly have the competence to draw up national legislation. Legislation is issued in the form of Decree-Laws. When legislative texts containing legislative rules are passed by Parliament, they become known as Decrees of the Assembly of the Republic and, once they are enacted by the President, as Laws of the Republic. Decree-Laws issued by the President and Laws issued by the Parliament all possess equal force.

The competence to initiate laws and referenda lies with the members of the Assembly, parliamentary groups, the Government, and also, under the terms and conditions established by law, with groups of registered electors. The competence to initiate laws in relation to the autonomous regions lies with the respective Legislative Assemblies. Discussion of bills comprises a debate on the general principles and another on the details. Voting comprises a vote on the general principles, a vote on the details and a final overall vote. If the Assembly so decides, texts that are passed on the general principles shall be put to the vote on the details in committee, without prejudice to the Assembly’s power to mandate the Plenary to put the details to the vote, or to the final overall vote by the Plenary.

The last general election was held in October 2015 and elected all 230 members of the Assembly. The next election is expected to take place in 2019.