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United Kingdom

Federative (3 devolved governments)
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On October 26th, 2023, the UK's Levelling-up and Regeneration Act 2023 received Royal Assent and entered into law. The Act lays out provisions for the country's levelling-up and national planning missions, and provisions on reporting on the progress to delivering levelling-up and planning projects. The original bill (Bill 006 2022-23), introduced to Parliament on May 11, 2...


United Kingdom. National Communication (NC). NC 8. Biennial Reports (BR). BR5. Corrigendum, National Communication,Biennial Report from United Kingdom in 2023


The Hydrogen Net Zero Investment Roadmap outlines the UK’s strategy to develop a low carbon hydrogen economy, supporting the deep decarbonisation of key UK sectors, particularly in those that are harder to ‘electrify’. 

  • Net UK carbon account for the year 2050 at least 100% lower than the 1990 baseline. This replaces the historic target of 80% cut in GHG emissions by 2050 compared with a 1990 baselineEconomy-wide: Economy Wide · Target year: 2050Source: Climate Change Act 2008
  • Net zero by 2050Economy-wide · Target year: 2050Source: Net Zero Strategy: Build Back Greener
  • By 2050, UK to achieve net zero.Economy-wide · Target year: 2050Source: Bus Back Better: national bus strategy for England
  • Cut emissions by 78%Economy-wide · Target year: 2035
  • Annual emissions in 2017-2020 to be at least 34% lower than the 1990 baselineEconomy-wide: Economy Wide · Target year: 2020

Legislative Process

Parliament is the centre of the political system in the United Kingdom. It is the supreme legislative body and the government is drawn from and answerable to Parliament. Parliament is bicameral, consisting of the House of Commons and the House of Lords.

Draft bills are issued for consultation before being formally introduced to Parliament. A bill is a proposal for a new law, or a proposal to change an existing law that is presented for debate before Parliament. Bills are introduced in either the House of Commons or House of Lords for examination, discussion and amend­ment. When both Houses have agreed on the content of a bill, it is presented to the monarch for Royal Assent. Once Royal Assent is given, a bill becomes an Act of Parliament and is law. An Act of Parliament creates a new law or changes an existing law.

Government White Papers set out details of future policy on a particular subject. They allow the government to gather feedback before it formally presents the policies as a bill. The last general election was in May 2015. The next election is scheduled to take place in 2020. Seats in the House of Lords are unelected appointments, and are a mix of lifetime appointments and hereditary peerages.

Due to the devolution of policy making, the administrations for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are individually responsible for implementing some aspects of UK climate change strategy. However, this chapter focuses on legislation passed by Parliament and policies proposed by the UK government.